Coffee Varieties

Coffee Grounds & Beans

In order to help our customers decide what kind of coffee they might enjoy, we decided to share some information about the different kinds of coffee.

There are many different ways of how coffee is differentiated, such as roasting type, caffeine level, country of origin, kinds of coffee beans, flavor level, flavor additives, and more.


Decaf Coffee

A coffee bean contains one to two percent caffeine, which is responsible for the stimulating effect of coffee. For those who cannot tolerate caffeine but do not want to give up their enjoyment of coffee, the raw coffee beans are decaffeinated. To do this, the beans are moistened with water and steam using special equipment; suitable solvents are then used to wash out the caffeine, and traces of the solvent are dispelled using steam. For technical reasons, a small residue of caffeine is unavoidably left in the beans, but the maximum one gram of caffeine per kilo dry weight of decaffeinated coffee may not be exceeded.

The caffeine, which has been washed out, is dried and reused, for example in cola drinks. The decaffeinated beans are then dried to the correct pre-roast level of moisture and can be roasted normally.

Mild Coffee

Mild coffee usually has the same level of caffeine as regular coffee. The biggest difference from regular coffee is the less intense, mild flavor. This coffee is pre-processed to remove some acidity, bitterness, and harshness of regular coffee. It is usually light roasted coffee.

Mild coffee is “stomach-friendly” coffee; it is recommended for those with sensitive stomachs. If you experience heartburn, upset stomach, or indigestion from regular coffee, try these kinds of coffee and start enjoying your coffee again!

Mild coffee is becoming more and more popular.

Instant Coffee

Instant coffee was discovered in the earlier 1900s; production processes were developed in 1930-1940s, and then in the 1950s instant coffee was widely launched onto the market.

A cup of instant coffee can be prepared quickly and easily, without brewing, since this has already been done in the factory. There are 2 techniques used to produce Instant coffee: Freeze drying and spray drying.

To create instant coffee, regular coffee is roasted, ground, and brewed. Then the coffee particles are extracted, and the remaining liquid is evaporated using a method of freeze-drying which produces better quality, smoother tasting coffee.

During the freeze-drying process, the coffee liquid is frozen to minus 40°C, which causes the water particles in the concentrated coffee to form ice crystals. Using a method known as sublimation, the ice is extracted from the frozen granules using a special chamber which dries the particles at a very low pressure, leaving behind a soluble coffee. The other technique that can be used to produce instant coffee is spray drying. During spray-drying, the concentrated coffee is sprayed into the top of a high tower together with hot air. Due to the heat, the water evaporates as it falls, so that all that remains is dried powdered coffee. Spray-drying is simpler than freeze-drying, but because high temperatures are needed for this process, many of the natural properties of the coffee are lost.

Roast Level

Green coffee is placed in a preheated roasting kettle for roasting. Initially, the kettle temperature drops as the coffee first dries and then absorbs temperature. This is followed by the browning phase. From a core temperature in the bean of approx. 100°C, chemical changes and aroma formation take place. For the roasting result, it is important how steeply the temperature rises in the coffee and what final temperature is reached. The roast master controls the roasting by regulating the energy supply at the roasting kettle. At the end of roasting, the kettle has a temperature of approx. 200°C to 220°C and the coffee of approx. 180°C.

During roasting, the coffee bean undergoes numerous physical and chemical changes. Physical changes are easy to observe: the coffee beans change color, volume, shape and weight. Chemical changes can be tasted and smelled.

Coffee beans consist of one-eighth water, which evaporates during roasting. In addition, roasting gases develop. Water vapor and gases cannot escape at the beginning of roasting due to the hard cell walls, collect and thus initially double the volume of the bean. This leads to the "first crack". The bean bursts open with an audible cracking sound. Lighter roasts have reached their end point. The "Second Crack" marks the point at which additional water vapor and gases (such as carbon dioxide) escape. The result is a dark, typically Italian roast.

Characteristic of light roasts are a pronounced acid profile and lots of fruity notes in the cup. Dark coffee roasts have a full body, more bitterness and chocolaty flavors.

Espresso Style Coffee

Espresso is a concentrated coffee brewed by forcing very hot, but not boiling, water under high pressure through coffee that has been ground to a consistency between extremely fine and powder. It was invented and has undergone development in Milan, Italy since the beginning of the 20th century, but up until the mid-1940s it was a beverage produced solely with steam pressure. The invention of the spring piston lever machine and its subsequent commercial success changed espresso into the beverage we know of today, produced with between 9 and 10 atmospheres of pressure. 

Properly brewed espresso has three major parts: the heart, body, and, (the most distinguishing factor) the presence of crema; which is a reddish-brown foam that floats on the surface of the espresso. As a result of the high-pressure brewing process, all the flavors and chemicals in a typical cup of coffee are concentrated. Some people prefer a single or double-shot instead of one or two cups of coffee to get a quick shot of caffeine. But contrary to popular belief, espresso contains less caffeine per serving than other types of coffee due to the quick extraction process. Also, because of its intense and highly concentrated ingredients (including caffeine) espresso lends itself to mixing into other coffee-based drinks, such as lattes, cappuccini, macchiati, and mochas, without overly diluting the resulting drink. A frequent misconception about espresso is that it is a specific bean or roast level. Any bean or roasting level can be used to produce authentic espresso.

While some major North American chains push dark roasts as their espresso roasts, some of the winning blends used in the World Barista Championship have been what is classified as a medium or "City" or "Full City" roast, with little or no visible surface oil on the beans. The popularity of different levels of roast in espresso varies greatly. Espresso is typically a blend of beans roasted anywhere from very light to very dark. In Southern Italy, a darker roast is preferred but in Northern Italy, a more medium roast is the most popular type.

Companies such as Starbucks and Peets have popularized darker roasts in North America and around the world, but the current trend in espresso coffee is matching the roast level to the bean type; this means that the most popular roast style is moving away from being associated with roast color, and more associated with what will produce the best flavor extraction in the cup for each region and type of bean.